中文翻译：李笑来 email@example.com 2018.10.31
Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they’ll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
概要：一个纯粹的点对点版本的电子现金系统，将允许在线支付直接从一方发送到另一方，而无需通过金融机构。数字签名虽然提供了部分解决方案，但，若是仍然需要被信任的第三方来防止双重支出的话，那么电子支付的主要优势就被抵消了。我们提出一个方案，使用点对点网络去解决双重支出问题。点对点网络将为每笔交易标记时间戳，方法是：把交易的散列数据录入一个不断延展的、以散列为基础的工作证明链上，形成一个如非完全重做就不可能改变的记录。最长链，一方面用来证明已被见证的事件及其顺序，与此同时，也用来证明它来自于最大的 CPU 算力池。只要绝大多数 CPU 算力被良性节点控制 —— 即，它们不与那些尝试攻击网络的节点合作 —— 那么，良性节点将会生成最长链，并且在速度上超过攻击者。这个网络本身需要最小化的结构。信息将以最大努力为基本去传播，节点来去自由；但，加入之时总是需要接受最长的工作证明链作为它们未参与期间所发生之一切的证明。
Commerce on the Internet has come to rely almost exclusively on financial institutions serving as trusted third parties to process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for most transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust based model.